Psychedelics, also known as hallucinogens, are a class of drugs known for their ability to alter human consciousness. The term “psychedelic” comes from the Greek words for “mind-manifesting,” reflecting the drugs’ ability to bring subconscious thoughts and feelings to the surface.

Psychedelic substances include both natural and synthetic compounds. Natural psychedelics have been used for thousands of years by indigenous cultures for spiritual and healing purposes. They are found in certain types of mushrooms, like psilocybin mushrooms, and plants, like peyote cactus and ayahuasca vine. Synthetic psychedelics, such as LSD (lysergic acid diethylamide), were developed more recently, primarily in the 20th century.

The effects of psychedelics can vary widely depending on the substance, dosage, individual’s mindset, and environmental setting. They can induce profound changes in perception, thought, and mood. Users often report experiences of intensified sensory perception, such as enhanced colors and sounds, distorted sense of time, and thought-altering experiences.

Two primary types of psychedelics that have been the focus of recent therapeutic research are psilocybin and ketamine.


Psilocybin is a naturally occurring psychedelic compound found in over 200 species of mushrooms, often referred to as “magic mushrooms.” When ingested, psilocybin is converted into psilocin, which affects the serotonin receptors in the brain, leading to altered and enhanced perceptions and thought patterns.

The effects of psilocybin can include feelings of euphoria, visual hallucinations, introspective experiences, and spiritual experiences. However, negative experiences, often referred to as “bad trips,” can also occur, leading to feelings of intense fear and anxiety.


Ketamine is a synthetic compound, primarily used as an anesthetic in medical settings due to its ability to induce a trance-like state, pain relief, and memory loss. It also has a history of recreational use due to its hallucinogenic and dissociative effects.

Unlike traditional psychedelics that act on serotonin receptors, ketamine acts on the glutamate receptors in the brain. This difference in action is believed to be responsible for ketamine’s rapid antidepressant effects.

In recent years, ketamine has been repurposed as a treatment for severe depression, particularly in individuals who are resistant to other treatments. The treatment typically involves low doses administered under medical supervision.

While the exploration of psychedelics for therapeutic uses is still in its relative infancy, early results are promising. The potential of these substances to facilitate profound shifts in consciousness and perception opens up exciting new avenues for understanding and improving human mental health and well-being.

What are Psychedelics?

Psychedelics are a class of drugs that induce profound changes in perception, mood, and cognitive processes. Psychedelic mushrooms, for instance, contain psilocybin, a compound known for its ability to produce powerful mind-altering experiences. Similarly, ketamine, a substance traditionally used as an anesthetic, has gained recognition for its potential in treating depression when used in controlled settings.

Psilocybin Therapy

Psilocybin therapy is a form of treatment that utilizes the psychedelic compound psilocybin, found naturally in certain species of mushrooms, often referred to as “magic mushrooms.” This type of therapy is gaining increased recognition for its potential in treating a variety of mental health conditions, including depression, anxiety, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD).

Unlike conventional forms of therapy, psilocybin therapy involves the ingestion of a psychedelic substance to facilitate a transformative mental experience. The goal is to induce a psychedelic state, often referred to as a “trip,” which can provide profound insights and help individuals to confront and resolve deeply rooted emotional and psychological issues.

How Does Psilocybin Therapy Work?

During a psilocybin therapy session, individuals consume a controlled dose of psilocybin, typically in a safe, comfortable, and controlled setting under the supervision of trained professionals. These sessions can last several hours, during which the individual may experience visual and auditory hallucinations, altered perceptions, and a heightened state of self-awareness.

During this altered state of consciousness, individuals often gain new insights into their behaviors, thought patterns, and emotional responses. This can help them address the root causes of their issues, leading to lasting change and improvement in their mental health.

Macrodosing vs Microdosing

Unlike microdosing, where the aim is to ingest sub-perceptual amounts of psilocybin to boost creativity and productivity, macrodosing involves consuming larger doses to facilitate deep emotional and psychological exploration. Macrodosing is typically performed less frequently than microdosing, often in individual or group therapy sessions, and can lead to more intense and transformative experiences.

While microdosing can offer subtle enhancements to mood and cognition, the larger doses used in macrodosing can catalyze profound shifts in perspective and understanding. These can often lead to significant improvements in mental health, particularly for individuals who have not responded well to traditional forms of therapy.

Psilocybin Therapy Research

Research into psilocybin therapy is ongoing, but early results are promising. Clinical trials have found that psilocybin therapy can significantly reduce symptoms of depression and anxiety, often after just a single session. Some studies have even suggested that the effects of psilocybin therapy can be long-lasting, with improvements in symptoms and overall well-being persisting for months after treatment.

Despite the promising results, it’s important to note that psilocybin therapy is not a cure-all and may not be suitable for everyone. It is a powerful tool that must be used responsibly and under the guidance of trained professionals. With ongoing research and increasing acceptance, psilocybin therapy has the potential to revolutionize the field of mental health treatment.

Ketamine Therapy

Ketamine therapy, also known as ketamine-assisted psychotherapy, is a novel form of treatment that utilizes the psychedelic compound ketamine to treat a variety of mental health conditions. While ketamine has been used for decades as an anesthetic in medical settings, its potential as a potent antidepressant has only recently been recognized.

How Does Ketamine Therapy Work?

Ketamine therapy typically involves the administration of low doses of ketamine under the supervision of a trained medical professional. During a session, the individual may experience a state of dissociation, including changes in perceptions of time and space, and a feeling of detachment from one’s physical body. These experiences, which are different from the typical psychedelic experiences induced by substances like psilocybin, can help individuals gain new perspectives on their problems and facilitate deep emotional healing.

Unlike traditional antidepressants that can take weeks to exert their effects, ketamine has been shown to provide rapid relief from symptoms of depression. This makes it a particularly valuable treatment option for individuals suffering from severe or treatment-resistant depression.

Ketamine Infusion Therapy

One common method of administering ketamine for therapeutic purposes is through an intravenous (IV) infusion. During a ketamine infusion therapy session, ketamine is slowly administered into the bloodstream over a period of around 40 minutes to an hour. This method of administration allows for precise control over the dosage and a more predictable onset of effects.

In addition to its use in treating depression, ketamine infusion therapy is also being explored for its potential in treating other mental health conditions, including PTSD, anxiety disorders, and certain types of chronic pain.

Ketamine Therapy Research

Research into the therapeutic potential of ketamine has yielded promising results. Several studies have shown that even a single session of ketamine therapy can lead to a significant reduction in symptoms of depression, often within hours of treatment. Moreover, these benefits can last for days or even weeks after the session.

While these results are encouraging, it’s worth noting that ketamine therapy is not without its risks. Potential side effects can include nausea, increased heart rate, and an elevated blood pressure during the infusion. More severe side effects, although rare, can include severe anxiety and panic, flashbacks to past traumas, and even psychotic reactions. Therefore, ketamine therapy should only be administered under the supervision of a trained professional.

Despite these risks, the potential benefits of ketamine therapy are substantial. For those struggling with severe or treatment-resistant mental health conditions, ketamine therapy offers a new and potentially powerful therapeutic tool. As research continues and our understanding improves, it’s likely that the use of ketamine in mental health treatment will continue to grow.

Legalization of Psychedelics

The use of psychedelics in therapy has sparked a discussion about the legalization of psychedelics. Some regions have already made strides in this direction. For instance, Oregon has legalized the medicaluse of psilocybin, leading to a surge in interest in Oregon psilocybin therapy. Similarly, ketamine therapy clinics are popping up across the U.S., with strict regulations in place to ensure patient safety.

Self-Improvement and Psychedelics

The practice of macrodosing psychedelics extends beyond the realm of therapy and into self-improvement. Many individuals report experiencing profound insights and shifts in perspective that lead to positive life changes. These can include improved productivity, better habits, and increased self-understanding.

Self-help books and articles often discuss the benefits of habits and productivity for self-improvement, but psychedelics offer a unique approach. By facilitating a deeper understanding of oneself, psychedelics can help individuals identify the root causes of their struggles and develop effective strategies for overcoming them.

Safety and Side Effects

While there are potential benefits to macrodosing psychedelics, it’s crucial to be aware of the possible side effects. Both psilocybin and ketamine can cause a range of physical and psychological effects. For psilocybin, these can include hallucinations, changes in perception, and emotional shifts. Ketamine can cause changes in consciousness, hallucinations, and, in rare cases, adverse reactions. Always consult with a healthcare provider before starting any psychedelic therapy.

Final Thoughts

Psychedelics present a promising field of study for both mental health treatment and self-improvement. As research continues to uncover the benefits of macrodosing psychedelics like psilocybin and ketamine, more individuals may find these substances a beneficial tool in their self-improvement journeys.

However, as with any treatment, it’s essential to approach psychedelic therapy with caution and under the guidance of a trained professional. With responsible use, these potent substances could play a significant role in fostering self-improvement, productivity, and mental health well-being.